Hábitat de la vaquita marina, Patrimonio Mundial en Peligro: Unesco

La Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (Unesco) incluyó este día a las Islas y Áreas Protegidas del Golfo de California, al noroeste de México, en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial en Peligro debido a la inminente extinción de la vaquita marina.

El área en el Golfo de California es el único hábitat de la vaquita marina, especie en estado crítico de extinción con solo 10 ejemplares al día de hoy, a pesar de las medidas tomadas por el Gobierno mexicano para proteger la especie amenazada.

Las Islas y Áreas Protegidas del Golfo de California, lugar inscrito en 2005 en la Lista de Patrimonio Mundial, abarca 244 islas, islotes y zonas litorales del golfo de California que ofrecen espectaculares paisajes y belleza, de acuerdo con un comunicado de la Unesco dado a conocer en su sede París.

“El Mar de Cortés y sus islas son un laboratorio natural para el estudio de la especie y el conocimiento de los procesos de evolución oceánicos y costeros, ya que casi todos ellos se dan en sus parajes”, añadió.

El sitio, que destaca por sus espectaculares vistas que ofrecen el desierto y el agua color turquesa, alberga además 695 especies botánicas y 891 ictiológicas, así como 39 por ciento y 33 por ciento del total mundial de especies de mamíferos y cetáceos, respectivamente.

El Comité del Patrimonio Mundial, que se reúne en Bakú, Azerbaiyán, decidió inscribir el lugar en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial en Peligro debido a su preocupación por la vaquita marina (Phocoena sinus), una especie de marsopa endémica del golfo de California, insistió la Unesco.

De esta manera da a conocer al mundo las condiciones que amenazan las características del lugar, mismas por las que un bien es inscrito en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial. Las condiciones amenazantes pueden ser conflictos armados, catástrofes, urbanización salvaje, caza furtiva o contaminación, entre otras).

Como parte de las medidas para salvar a la vaquita marina, México creó un área de refugio para los pocos ejemplares restantes y promueve artes de pesca alternativas a las redes de enmalle, con las cuales las vaquitas marinas mueren por asfixia, de acuerdo con el texto.

En 2005, la población de estos mamíferos marinos sumaba casi 300 ejemplares, y en la actualidad solo quedan unos 10, debido a la pesca ilegal con redes de enmalle, por lo que la Unesco instó a las autoridades mexicanas un esfuerzo mayor para evitar la extinción.

La vaquita marina es víctima colateral de la pesca ilegal del pez totoaba, declarado en peligro de extinción y por cuya vejiga natatoria se pagan elevados precios en Asia.

Fuente: El Financiero

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