Te explicamos en qué consiste este mecanismo de defensa de disputas entre los países miembros del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN).

El Financiero

El Gobierno de Canadá considera alejarse de las negociaciones del TLCAN si la administración de Donald Trump insiste en suprimir los paneles de solución de controversias del Capítulo 19, de acuerdo con un alto funcionario canadiense, citado por The Globe and Mail este martes.

Esto fue reforzado por el primer ministro de Canadá, Justin Trudeau, quien dijo que este mecanismo es «esencial». Te decimos de qué se trata el Capítulo 19:

El Capítulo 19 del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN) permite que Canadá, Estados Unidos o México soliciten el establecimiento de paneles binacionales independientes cuando sus exportadores o productores sientan que son víctimas de decisiones comerciales desleales por algún otro miembro del acuerdo.

Estos paneles emiten decisiones vinculantes para resolver la disputa, en lugar de una revisión judicial por los tribunales nacionales en casos de derechos antidumping y compensatorios.

En 1994, cuando el TLCAN entró en vigor, el entonces primer ministro canadiense Brian Mulroney impuso este mecanismo de resolución de diferencias -lo que él llamada su condición esencial-, el cual daría a Canadá una manera de resolver conflictos comerciales fuera de los tribunales de Estados Unidos (EU).

Un panel se crea cuando se presenta una Solicitud de Revisión de Panel por parte de la industria que lo requiere, requiriendo de esta manera una revisión de la decisión de la autoridad investigadora que involucra las importaciones de un país del TLCAN.

En México, la autoridad investigadora es la Secretaría de Economía, a través de la Unidad de Prácticas Comerciales Internacionales (UPCI), en Canadá es el Organismo de Servicios Fronterizos (CBSA) y en Estados Unidos es el Departamento de Comercio a través de la Administración de Comercio Internacional.

Los países también pueden recurrir a la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) cuando se trata de disputas binacionales, sin embargo cuando se trata de controversias entre los países del TLCAN entonces se recurre a las autoridades investigadoras antes mencionadas.

Las determinaciones de dumping, subsidio y daño por parte de las autoridades investigadoras también pueden ser apeladas, en Canadá ante el Tribunal Federal del Canadá, en Estados Unidos ante el Tribunal de Comercio Internacional y en México ante el Tribunal Fiscal de la Federación.

Los críticos en los Estados Unidos han sentido que el Capítulo 19 es una cesación inaceptable de la soberanía de ese país y el Gobierno de EU preferiría que las compañías extranjeras buscaran una reparación en los tribunales estadounidenses, un proceso más costoso y largo.

La semana pasada, el Gobierno de EU reveló sus prioridades para las negociaciones y entre éstas se incluyen el deseo de remover el Capítulo 19.

El representante comercial de Estados Unidos, Robert Lighthizer, dijo que Estados Unidos buscará eliminar un mecanismo de disputa comercial que ha impedido que su país inicie demandas contra casos de subsidios y dumping de compañías de mexicanas y canadienses.

Con información de Bloomberg, Reuters, The Globe and Mail

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