Desde San Lázaro… Políticas de fondo para soluciones efectivas

887
1982

Políticas de fondo para soluciones efectivas

Alejandro Sánchez Cano

Desde San Lázaro

El diseño de cualquier política o programa de gobierno debe contemplar el origen del problema que pretende solucionar o corregir. De lo contrario, se transforman en paliativos o maquillaje y no aportan soluciones reales.

La pobreza y la marginación tiene repercusión decisiva en tres ámbitos: político/educativo, en el ámbito laboral y en el ámbito socioeconómico.

En el plano político-educativo, la pobreza aunada a la disminución de la presencia del Estado en su rol subsidiario, genera reducción de inversión en programas de educación y salud, que afecta en particular a los sectores más vulnerables de la población. Son comunes las situaciones de hacinamiento y precariedad, migraciones y deterioro ambiental, que aumentan los índices de violencia social e intrafamiliar y enfermedades biológicas.

En el plano laboral, la pobreza y la falta de oportunidades generan desocupación, subocupación, empleos no dignos y explotación laboral que desembocan en violencia social, familiar y escolar.

En el ámbito socioeconómico, la pobreza y la falta de oportunidades generan división familiar por la necesidad de migrar, desinversión, crisis de valores, exclusión. Estos entornos dan lugar a diversos tipos de violencia que impacta en el incremento de enfermedades mentales como el estrés, la depresión, la obsesión.

Lo anterior deja evidencia de la relación entre la pobreza/falta de oportunidades y diversas enfermedades, y provoca dudas acerca de las afirmaciones de que la violencia es consecuencia de los poderes internacionales, de intereses económicos de A, B o Z. El origen de la violencia es la pobreza y la falta de oportunidades. Y la responsabilidad del diseño de estrategias para el combate a la pobreza y generación de oportunidades para la población es del Estado. Por lo tanto, cualquier política o programa gubernamental o de organizaciones de la sociedad civil, no podrá erradicar ninguna situación no deseada si no ataca el origen: la pobreza y la falta de oportunidades.

La Salud Mental es un ejercicio de ciudadanía, autonomía y libertad; demanda capacidad de gestión estatal para hacer uso de los recursos existentes y reinventar otros con el fin de lograr la integración social y cultural en la comunidad.

Es fundamental que el Sistema de Salud ponga acento en el respeto a los derechos de las personas con padecimientos mentales, a la problemática que presenta cada paciente y a considerar a las adicciones dentro de la salud mental, lo que exige verlas como un problema de salud.

Gobierno y organizaciones de la sociedad civil que atienden población con adicciones deben perseguir un objetivo común: promover o restituir los derechos de las personas con padecimientos mentales o adicciones, desde una perspectiva de salud con enfoque en derechos humanos centrados en la generación de oportunidades sociales, políticas, culturales y laborales que favorezcan la inclusión social, la promoción de capacidades y fortalecimiento de la autonomía para afrontar problemas y situaciones de la vida cotidiana y la articulación con instituciones sanitarias en salud mental y/o adiciones a fin de incrementar el acceso a servicios sanitarios.

Es importante prevenir desde la educación. La escuela y los docentes deben hacer sinergias con padres de familia y autoridades del sector salud para realizar campañas de información y concientización.

Hay evidencia de un aumento del índice de adicciones en las mujeres adolescentes. Las causas son diversas: baja autoestima, abusos, soledad y falta de oportunidades. Sin embargo, no existen programas específicos para las mujeres. Es un foco rojo y un pendiente que debe trabajarse con perspectiva de género, porque los orígenes y consecuencias de las adicciones pueden ser diferentes.

Es importante considerar que no hay salud sin salud mental, y no hay salud mental sin inclusión social.

 

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